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| Measurement |

Unit of Measurement

Tape measurement Myanmar apply, in general, British System - Inch, Foot, Square Feet, Cubic Feet, Cubic Ton and Hoppus Cubic Ton ( most popularly known as H.T.) and some of Asian buyers is familiar with Metric System. Because of this different application of unit, the buyer become often confused especially for LOG. The following information will help you understand most comprehensively how two different systems work:

For sawn timber ( Post, Planks, Boards, Flitch, Deck, Scantling, Dimension Stock), it is a matter of normal conversion, since we apply normal geometric formula for volume:

Volume of Sawn Timber = Thickness x Width x Length
For British System = Ft x Ft x Ft = Cubic Foot
For Metric System = M x M x M = Cubic Meter

In usual practice in Myanmar for even British System, Cubic Foot is applied as primary unit, and then converted to Cubic Ton ( by 50 Cubic foot = 1 Cubic Ton.) This Cubic Ton is again misreferred as Hoppus Ton ( H.T), which is technically reserved for LOG only). But, in the world, some common mistakes can become right reference, once accepted by all. We should understand the different meaning of Cubic Ton and Hoppus Cubic Ton (H.T.)

50 Cubic Foot = 1 Cubic Ton For Sawn Timber (by geometric formula)
50 Hoppus Cubic Foot = 1 Hoppus CubicTon(H.T.) For LOG(by technical formula)

Therefore, the conversion between British System (BS) and Metric System (MS) for Sawn Timber is of pure geometrical nature, which is clarified as:

( for British System Vs Metric System )

1 Cubic Foot = 0.02832 Cubic Meter
50 Cubic Foot = 1.416 Cubic Meter
Therefore. 1 Cubic Ton = 1.416 Cubic Meter ( since 1 Cubic Ton = 50 Cubic Foot)

(for Metric System Vs British System)

1 Cubic Meter = 35.315 Cubic Foot
Or 1 Cubic Meter = 0.706 Cubic Ton (Since 50 Cubic Foot = 1 Cubic Ton)

How to understand Hoppus Ton (HT) in referring logs in Myanmar

True Volume Calculation Hoppus Volume Calculation
1. First, let us consider LOG as Symmetrical Cylinder.
Log as a symmetrical cylinder
2(a). To find out the Diameter of the Cylinder, take measurements of largest and smallest diameters at each end. Calculate average diameter at each end by dividing the sum of two diameters by two. Then the diameter D of the Symmetrical Cylinder representing the LOG is:

D = (Average Diameter at one end + Average Diameter at another end) / 2
Diameter of Cylinder
2(b). To find out circumference which is defined as GIRTH, take measurement at the mid point of the LOG. Using this GIRTH "G" we can draw the Symmetrical Cylinder to represent the LOG.
Girth of Cylinder
3(a). 3(b).Third, the GIRTH will be drawn up to linear straight line and divided by 4.
Girth divided by 4
4(a). Calculate the AREA of the sectional CIRCLE.

A = π D²/4
Area of circle
4(b). Construct a SQUARE using G/4 as one side. Then calculate the area of the SQUARE.

A = (G/4)²
Area of square
5(a). We can now calculate the VOLUME of CYLINDER by multiplying the AREA of the Sectional Circle by LENGTH.

V = A x L
Volume of cylinder
5(b). We can calculate the VOLUME of the CUBOID by multiplying AREA of the SUARE by LENGTH.

V = A x L
Volume of CUBOID
6. Now we can clearly compare the difference between the Volume of Cylinder as TRUE Volume and the Volume of Cuboid (as Hoppus Volume).
Area of square

Comparison between Hoppus Ton and True Volume calculations.
  Hoppus Volume True Volume
Imperial system Imperial System Metric System
Geometry profile for calculation Cuboid Cylinder Cylinder
Length (L) in Foot (L) in Foot (L) in Meter
Girth (Circumference) (G) in Foot & Inch (G) in Foot & Inch Not applicable
Diameter Not applicable Not applicable (D) in Meter
Volume calculation V = (G/4)² x L V = π (D²/4) x L V = π (D²/4) x L
Unit of volume Cubic-Foot Cubic-Foot Cubic-Meter
Let us assume Diameter D = 10 Ft or 3.048 M, and Length L = 20 Ft or 6.098 M
Circumference (G = Girth) = π x D
= 31.4286 Ft
Not applicable Not applicable
From formula V = (G/4)² x L V = π (D²/4) x L V = π (D²/4) x L
Insert figures (31.4286/4)² x 20 π (10²/4) x 20 π (3.048²/4) x 6.096
  1234.7118 Cu-Ft 1571.4286 Cu-Ft 44.4979 Cu-Meter
Ratio 1.0 1.2727 0.036039
x 50 50 Cu-Ft 63.635 Cu-Ft 1.802 Cu-Meter
Since 50 Cu-Ft = 1 Hpppus Ton 1 Hoppus Ton 1.2727 CBT 1.802 Cu-Meter

The last row of the above table gives us relationship between the three systems of measurement. That is,
1 Hoppus Ton = 1.2727 CBT (Cubic Ton) = 1.802 Cu-Meter (CBM)

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